The goal of a cognitive service is to be able to use existing knowledge and generate new knowledge.
To this end artificial cognition must display abilities and processes related to knowledge.
The following is a list of these abilities and processes that make up an artificial cognitive service:
Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information. Attention has also been referred to as the allocation of limited processing resources. [i]
Daneel accomplishes this by calculating all possible combinations of compatible graphs which lead to a desirable outcome for the user and then if necessary will ask the user to choose from one of many possible graph traversals. If Daneel cannot compute complete graphs that match the users request then it will fall back onto partial graphs and ask the user to choose from a more compatible request. So if the user was searching for A+B+C and Daneel only had compatible graphs for A+B and B+C the system will tell the user that A+B+C is not solvable but A+B and B+C is.
Memory which is related to the activities of Encoding (or registration) of information and combining this information with existing knowledge, Storage which is the permanent record of the encoded information and Retrieval which is the ability to call back the stored information on demand. Working memory can hold many pieces of transitory information which can be manipulated by the mind. [ii]
Daneel possesses a unique decomposition technique that allows it to read in information from both natural language and structured sources, represent that information as a graph which is then overlaid on the existing dynamic knowledge graph (the working memory). This information will become part of the new working memory (an ongoing activity that constantly monitors and updates the dynamic knowledge graph) which is then committed to permanent storage as versions of the global dynamic ontology.
Judgment and Evaluation of the rightness or wrongness or usefulness of something or someone based on a comparison or other relativity. [iii]
Daneel is able to judge new knowledge that is generated or pushed into its memory from outside sources by evaluating different versions of the ontology. Drastic differences in versions of the ontology for particular graph patterns will emerge and be presented to a mentoring user who will assist the user in making a judgment on the validity of the new knowledge. Certain graph segments can be engrained in the system as absolute truths which form boundaries that Daneel must operate within. These would be as a set of values preset on the system.
Reason is the analytic faculty of the mind that maintains objectivity unto inspecting and organizing perceptions. [iv]
Different perceptions will be transformed into different geometric shapes that can be linked together as a function of context. These shapes will be analysed by a mirrored organization (i.e. an identical organization which handles the graph of symbols but is organized as a graph of geometric shapes. The multiplication of organizations will permit the reflexivity of the system.
Computation is any type of calculation. [v]
Daneel is still built on standard computing technology. This by definition gives Daneel all the computing abilities that it needs. However, Daneel also has the ability to memorize patterns and arrive at results much faster than simply running algorithms. It can be thought of as the difference between calculating 2+2=4 and knowing 2+2=4.
Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, for finding solutions to problems. Then decision making consists of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision maker when more than one solution presents itself. [vi]
Daneel beings by using the same processes as for reasoning. Meaning different perceptions will be transformed into different geometric shapes that can be linked together as a function of context. These geometric shapes are then measured against known objectives (other geometric shapes) which exist already in the system (well-defined problem). Daneel will then choose the solution which seems to most match the desired objective and then the results are measured. If there is a convergence towards the objective then this solution is remembered positively. Otherwise, the solution will be cut from future solutions sets. When a problem is not well defined Daneel needs to solve the problem of missing symbols in its objectives graph by either performing searches on the web itself to find the missing symbols needed or it will ask its mentor user for help.
Comprehension of language is the ability to read text, process it and understand its meaning. [vii]
Daneel references the meaning of each word of a user’s input and produces one or more possible graphs to represent what has been entered. This graph is then subjected to the reasoning, judgement and decision making and problem solving capabilities mentioned above. It searches for like meaning in its own organization and then can propose solutions to the user.
[i] Wikipedia.org. Wikipedia, [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/cognition] (site consulted the 28th of January 2015).